Voltage is the pressure from an electrical circuit’s power source that pushes charged electrons (current) through a conducting loop, enabling them to do work such as illuminating a light.
In brief, voltage = pressure, and it is measured in volts (V). The term recognizes Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), inventor of the voltaic pile—the forerunner of today’s household battery.
In electricity’s early days, voltage was known as electromotive force (emf). This is why in equations such as Ohm’s Law, voltage is represented by the symbol E.
Example of voltage in a simple direct current (dc) circuit:
Voltage is either alternating current (ac) voltage or direct current (dc) voltage. Ways they differ:
Alternating current voltage (represented on a digital multimeter by ):
Generators convert rotating motion into electricity. The rotary motion is commonly caused by flowing water (hydroelectric power) or steam from water heated by gas, oil, coal or nuclear power.
Direct current voltage (represented on a digital multimeter by and ):
Voltage and the term “potential difference” are often used interchangeably. Potential difference might be better defined as the potential energy difference between two points in a circuit. The amount of difference (expressed in volts) determines how much potential energy exists to move electrons from one specific point to another. The quantity identifies how much work, potentially, can be done through the circuit.
A household AA alkaline battery, for example, offers 1.5 V. Typical household electrical outlets offer 120 V. The greater the voltage in a circuit, the greater its ability to “push” more electrons and do work.
Voltage/potential difference can be compared to water stored in a tank. The larger the tank, and the greater its height (and thus its potential velocity), the greater the water’s capacity to create an impact when a valve is opened and the water (like electrons) can flow.
Technicians approach most troubleshooting situations knowing how a circuit should customarily perform.
Circuits are used to deliver energy to a load—from a small device to a household appliance to an industrial motor. Loads often carry a nameplate that identifies their standard electrical reference values, including voltage and current. In place of a nameplate, some manufacturers provide a detailed schematic (technical diagram) of a load’s circuitry. Manuals may include standard values.
These numbers tell a technician what readings to expect when a load is operating normally. A reading on a digital multimeter can objectively identify deviations from the norm. Even so, the technician must use knowledge and experience to determine the factors causing such variances.
Reference: Digital Multimeter Principles by Glen A. Mazur, American Technical Publishers.
Explaining electricity’s fundamental components